In the etiology of gum diseases; it’s seen that it is a kind of disease that is significantly affected by local factors, environmental factors, genetic predispositions, and medical treatments. And, it has complex pathogenesis. Periodontal diseases are characterized by loss of connective tissue, alveolar bone resorption, and periodontal cell formation and are categorized as chronic inflammatory diseases.
Gum disease, also known as periodontal diseases, is the name given to dangerous infectious diseases that affect the tissues that are surrounding and supporting the tooth, rather than affecting the tooth and thus can cause enormous damage. The most common gum diseases are gingivitis, chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic diseases, necrotizing periodontal diseases, gum abscess, and periodontal abscess. 70% of tooth loss in adults is caused by gum disease. If these diseases are diagnosed at an early stage, treatment can be performed easily and successfully as possible. As a result of the treatment of gum diseases, significant improvements in the quality of life of the patients are observed. For example; preservation of natural teeth, more comfortable chewing and better digestion and so on.
There are many factors that are affecting oral health. For example, even teeth without any decay can be lost due to these diseases. Gum diseases can affect one or more teeth and can be seen in children, adolescents, adults and the elderly.
Symptoms of periodontal disease are hardly noticed by the patient because gum diseases are usually painless during the progression period. Therefore, in most cases, it’s noticed that the disease is already progressed when the patient goes to the dentist.
The tissues that are surrounding and supporting the teeth consist of the gingiva, tooth root, jaw bone and fibers that connect the root of the tooth to the jaw bone and this structure is called periodontium. If the infection only affects the gingiva, it is called gingivitis. The clearest signs of gingivitis are red, swollen, shiny, soft and easily bleeding gingiva. The most important symptom of gingivitis is gingival bleeding. Therefore, in case of any bleeding, the patient should go for a physician check immediately.
If the jaw bone and the fibers that connect the root of the tooth to the jaw bone are also affected with gingiva, this condition is called periodontitis. Periodontitis ends up with the loss of tissue. And, it is a dental plaque-associated inflammatory disease that is related to dental plaque and results in loss of periodontal tissues which is a serious condition. The most characteristic symptoms are bleeding in the gingiva, red / bluish-purplish discoloration, gingival recession, gingival growth, displacement of the gums, significant widening between the teeth, elongation of the teeth, dangling tooth, abscess, sensitivity, and bad breath. In periodontitis, pain is generally seen with abscess formation and caution people about periodontitis. Although the rate of incidence of periodontitis is approximately 10-15% worldwide between adults. This rate is higher in underdeveloped or developing countries that have poor oral hygiene standards.
The severity and rate of progression of periodontitis changes depending on the balance of several factors. These factors can be summarized as; the number and type of bacteria in the mouth, the defense mechanisms of the patient, the presence or absence of specific risk factors. Some other risk factors such as smoking and/or diabetes may further weaken the defense mechanism of the human body and accelerate the progression of periodontitis.
In gingival diseases treated by a physician, it is possible to stop the progression of the disease completely if careful evaluation and treatment is administered. Besides this, the most important thing to do is providing oral hygiene. If dental care is not done, the number of bacteria in the mouth will increase. Therefore, the level of inflammation decreases when new bacteria formation is prevented by reducing the number of existing bacteria.